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Geminin expression is essential for embryonic development and the maintenance of chromosomal integrity. In spite of this protective role, geminin is also frequently overexpressed in human cancers and the molecular mechanisms underlying its role in tumor progression remain unclear. The histone deacetylase HDAC3 modulates transcription factors to activate or suppress transcription. Little is known about how HDAC3 specifies substrates for modulation among highly homologous transcription factor family members. Here, we have demonstrated that geminin selectively couples the transcription factor forkhead box O3 (FoxO3) to HDAC3, thereby specifically facilitating FoxO3 deacetylation. We determined that geminin–associated HDAC3 deacetylates FoxO3 to block its transcriptional activity, leading to downregulation of the downstream FoxO3 target Dicer, an RNase that suppresses metastasis. Breast cancer cells depleted of geminin or HDAC3 exhibited poor metastatic potential that was attributed to reduced suppression of the FoxO3-Dicer axis. Moreover, elevated levels of geminin, HDAC3, or both together with decreased FoxO3 acetylation and reduced Dicer expression were detected in aggressive human breast cancer specimens. These results underscore a prominent role for geminin in promoting breast cancer metastasis via the enzyme-substrate–coupling mechanism in HDAC3-FoxO3 complex formation.
Lei Zhang, Meizhen Cai, Zhicheng Gong, Bingchang Zhang, Yuanpei Li, Li Guan, Xiaonan Hou, Qing Li, Gang Liu, Zengfu Xue, Muh-hua Yang, Jing Ye, Y. Eugene Chin, Han You
Total views: 3209
BACKGROUND. The clinical management of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) patients is based exclusively on virological parameters that cannot independently determine in which patients nucleos(t)ide-analogue (NUC) therapy can be safely discontinued. NUCs efficiently suppress viral replication, but do not eliminate HBV. Thus, therapy discontinuation can be associated with virological and biochemical relapse and, consequently, therapy in the majority is life-long. METHODS. Since antiviral immunity is pivotal for HBV control, we investigated potential biomarkers for the safe discontinuation of NUCs within immune profiles of chronic HBV patients by utilizing traditional immunological assays (ELISPOT, flow cytometry) in conjunction with analyses of global non–antigen-specific immune populations (NanoString and CyTOF). Two distinct cohorts of 19 and 27 chronic HBV patients, respectively, were analyzed longitudinally prior to and after discontinuation of 2 different NUC therapy strategies. RESULTS. Absence of hepatic flares following discontinuation of NUC treatment correlated with the presence, during NUC viral suppression, of HBV core and polymerase-specific T cells that were contained within the ex vivo PD-1+ population. CONCLUSIONS. This study identifies the presence of functional HBV-specific T cells as a candidate immunological biomarker for safe therapy discontinuation in chronic HBV patients. Furthermore, the persistent and functional antiviral activity of PD-1+ HBV–specific T cells highlights the potential beneficial role of the expression of T cell exhaustion markers during human chronic viral infection. FUNDING. This work was funded by a Singapore Translational Research Investigator Award (NMRC/STaR/013/2012), the Eradication of HBV TCR Program (NMRC/TCR/014-NUHS/2015), the Singapore Immunology Network, the Wellcome Trust (107389/Z/15/Z), and a Barts and The London Charity (723/1795) grant.
Laura Rivino, Nina Le Bert, Upkar S. Gill, Kamini Kunasegaran, Yang Cheng, Damien Z.M. Tan, Etienne Becht, Navjyot K. Hansi, Graham R. Foster, Tung-Hung Su, Tai-Chung Tseng, Seng Gee Lim, Jia-Horng Kao, Evan W. Newell, Patrick T.F. Kennedy, Antonio Bertoletti
Total views: 2178
Programmed death–ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression on tumor cells is essential for T cell impairment, and PD-L1 blockade therapy has shown unprecedented durable responses in several clinical studies. Although higher expression of PD-L1 on tumor cells is associated with a better immune response after Ab blockade, some PD-L1–negative patients also respond to this therapy. In the current study, we explored whether PD-L1 on tumor or host cells was essential for anti–PD-L1–mediated therapy in 2 different murine tumor models. Using real-time imaging in whole tumor tissues, we found that anti–PD-L1 Ab accumulates in tumor tissues regardless of the status of PD-L1 expression on tumor cells. We further observed that, while PD-L1 on tumor cells was largely dispensable for the response to checkpoint blockade, PD-L1 in host myeloid cells was essential for this response. Additionally, PD-L1 signaling in defined antigen presenting cells (APCs) negatively regulated and inhibited T cell activation. PD-L1 blockade inside tumors was not sufficient to mediate regression, as limiting T cell trafficking reduced the efficacy of the blockade. Together, these findings demonstrate that PD-L1 expressed in APCs, rather than on tumor cells, plays an essential role in checkpoint blockade therapy, providing an insight into the mechanisms of this therapy.
Haidong Tang, Yong Liang, Robert A. Anders, Janis M. Taube, Xiangyan Qiu, Aditi Mulgaonkar, Xin Liu, Susan M. Harrington, Jingya Guo, Yangchun Xin, Yahong Xiong, Kien Nham, William Silvers, Guiyang Hao, Xiankai Sun, Mingyi Chen, Raquibul Hannan, Jian Qiao, Haidong Dong, Hua Peng, Yang-Xin Fu
Total views: 2069
Before insulin can stimulate myocytes to take up glucose, it must first move from the circulation to the interstitial space. The continuous endothelium of skeletal muscle (SkM) capillaries restricts insulin’s access to myocytes. The mechanism by which insulin crosses this continuous endothelium is critical to understand insulin action and insulin resistance; however, methodological obstacles have limited understanding of endothelial insulin transport in vivo. Here, we present an intravital microscopy technique to measure the rate of insulin efflux across the endothelium of SkM capillaries. This method involves development of a fully bioactive, fluorescent insulin probe, a gastrocnemius preparation for intravital microscopy, an automated vascular segmentation algorithm, and the use of mathematical models to estimate endothelial transport parameters. We combined direct visualization of insulin efflux from SkM capillaries with modeling of insulin efflux kinetics to identify fluid-phase transport as the major mode of transendothelial insulin efflux in mice. Model-independent experiments demonstrating that insulin movement is neither saturable nor affected by insulin receptor antagonism supported this result. Our finding that insulin enters the SkM interstitium by fluid-phase transport may have implications in the pathophysiology of SkM insulin resistance as well as in the treatment of diabetes with various insulin analogs.
Ian M. Williams, Francisco A. Valenzuela, Steven D. Kahl, Doraiswami Ramkrishna, Adam R. Mezo, Jamey D. Young, K. Sam Wells, David H. Wasserman
Total views: 1895
Programmed death-1 receptor (PD-L1, B7-H1) and programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) pathway blockade is a promising therapy for treating cancer. However, the mechanistic contribution of host and tumor PD-L1 and PD-1 signaling to the therapeutic efficacy of PD-L1 and PD-1 blockade remains elusive. Here, we evaluated 3 tumor-bearing mouse models that differ in their sensitivity to PD-L1 blockade and demonstrated a loss of therapeutic efficacy of PD-L1 blockade in immunodeficient mice and in PD-L1– and PD-1–deficient mice. In contrast, neither knockout nor overexpression of PD-L1 in tumor cells had an effect on PD-L1 blockade efficacy. Human and murine studies showed high levels of functional PD-L1 expression in dendritic cells and macrophages in the tumor microenvironments and draining lymph nodes. Additionally, expression of PD-L1 on dendritic cells and macrophages in ovarian cancer and melanoma patients correlated with the efficacy of treatment with either anti–PD-1 alone or in combination with anti–CTLA-4. Thus, PD-L1–expressing dendritic cells and macrophages may mechanistically shape and therapeutically predict clinical efficacy of PD-L1/PD-1 blockade.
Heng Lin, Shuang Wei, Elaine M. Hurt, Michael D. Green, Lili Zhao, Linda Vatan, Wojciech Szeliga, Ronald Herbst, Paul W. Harms, Leslie A. Fecher, Pankaj Vats, Arul M. Chinnaiyan, Christopher D. Lao, Theodore S. Lawrence, Max Wicha, Junzo Hamanishi, Masaki Mandai, Ilona Kryczek, Weiping Zou
Total views: 1815
Metabolic reprogramming in breast tumors is linked to increases in putative oncogenic metabolites that may contribute to malignant transformation. We previously showed that accumulation of the oncometabolite, 2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG), in breast tumors was associated with MYC signaling, but not with isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutations, suggesting a distinct mechanism for increased 2HG in breast cancer. Here, we determined that D-2HG is the predominant enantiomer in human breast tumors and show that the D-2HG–producing mitochondrial enzyme, alcohol dehydrogenase, iron-containing protein 1 (ADHFE1), is a breast cancer oncogene that decreases patient survival. We found that MYC upregulates ADHFE1 through changes in iron metabolism while coexpression of both ADHFE1 and MYC strongly enhanced orthotopic tumor growth in MCF7 cells. Moreover, ADHFE1 promoted metabolic reprogramming with increased formation of D-2HG and reactive oxygen, a reductive glutamine metabolism, and modifications of the epigenetic landscape, leading to cellular dedifferentiation, enhanced mesenchymal transition, and phenocopying alterations that occur with high D-2HG levels in cancer cells with IDH mutations. Together, our data support the hypothesis that ADHFE1 and MYC signaling contribute to D-2HG accumulation in breast tumors and show that D-2HG is an oncogenic metabolite and potential driver of disease progression.
Prachi Mishra, Wei Tang, Vasanta Putluri, Tiffany H. Dorsey, Feng Jin, Fang Wang, Donewei Zhu, Lauren Amable, Tao Deng, Shaofei Zhang, J. Keith Killian, Yonghong Wang, Tsion Z. Minas, Harry G. Yfantis, Dong H. Lee, Arun Sreekumar, Michael Bustin, Wei Liu, Nagireddy Putluri, Stefan Ambs
Total views: 1624
HIF-1α, one of the most extensively studied oncogenes, is activated by a variety of microenvironmental factors. The resulting biological effects are thought to depend on its transcriptional activity. The RNAse enzyme Dicer is frequently downregulated in human cancers, which has been functionally linked to enhanced metastatic properties; however, current knowledge of the upstream mechanisms regulating Dicer is limited. In the present study, we identified Dicer as a HIF-1α–interacting protein in multiple types of cancer cell lines and different human tumors. HIF-1α downregulated Dicer expression by facilitating its ubiquitination by the E3 ligase Parkin, thereby enhancing autophagy-mediated degradation of Dicer, which further suppressed the maturation of known tumor suppressors, such as the microRNA let-7 and microRNA-200b. Consequently, expression of HIF-1α facilitated epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and metastasis in tumor-bearing mice. Thus, this study uncovered a connection between oncogenic HIF-1α and the tumor-suppressive Dicer. This function of HIF-1α is transcription independent and occurs through previously unrecognized protein interaction–mediated ubiquitination and autophagic proteolysis.
Hui-Huang Lai, Jie-Ning Li, Ming-Yang Wang, Hsin-Yi Huang, Carlo M. Croce, Hui-Lung Sun, Yu-Jhen Lyu, Jui-Wen Kang, Ching-Feng Chiu, Mien-Chie Hung, Hiroshi I. Suzuki, Pai-Sheng Chen
Total views: 1620
The human lung harbors a large population of resident memory T cells (Trm cells). These cells are perfectly positioned to mediate rapid protection against respiratory pathogens such as influenza virus, a highly contagious respiratory pathogen that continues to be a major public health burden. Animal models show that influenza-specific lung CD8+ Trm cells are indispensable for crossprotection against pulmonary infection with different influenza virus strains. However, it is not known whether influenza-specific CD8+ Trm cells present within the human lung have the same critical role in modulating the course of the disease. Here, we showed that human lung contains a population of CD8+ Trm cells that are highly proliferative and have polyfunctional progeny. We observed that different influenza virus–specific CD8+ T cell specificities differentiated into Trm cells with varying efficiencies and that the size of the influenza-specific CD8+ T cell population persisting in the lung directly correlated with the efficiency of differentiation into Trm cells. To our knowledge, we provide the first ex vivo dissection of paired T cell receptor (TCR) repertoires of human influenza–specific CD8+ Trm cells. Our data reveal diverse TCR profiles within the human lung Trm cells and a high degree of clonal sharing with other CD8+ T cell populations, a feature important for effective T cell function and protection against the generation of viral-escape mutants.
Angela Pizzolla, Thi H.O. Nguyen, Sneha Sant, Jade Jaffar, Tom Loudovaris, Stuart I. Mannering, Paul G. Thomas, Glen P. Westall, Katherine Kedzierska, Linda M. Wakim
Total views: 1595
The underlying cellular mechanisms of catatonia, an executive “psychomotor” syndrome that is observed across neuropsychiatric diseases, have remained obscure. In humans and mice, reduced expression of the structural myelin protein CNP is associated with catatonic signs in an age-dependent manner, pointing to the involvement of myelin-producing oligodendrocytes. Here, we showed that the underlying cause of catatonic signs is the low-grade inflammation of white matter tracts, which marks a final common pathway in Cnp-deficient and other mutant mice with minor myelin abnormalities. The inhibitor of CSF1 receptor kinase signaling, PLX5622, depleted microglia and alleviated the catatonic symptoms of Cnp mutants. Thus, microglia and low-grade inflammation of myelinated tracts emerged as the trigger of a previously unexplained mental condition. We observed a very high (25%) prevalence of individuals with catatonic signs in a deeply phenotyped schizophrenia sample (n = 1095). Additionally, we found the loss-of-function allele of a myelin-specific gene (CNP rs2070106-AA) associated with catatonia in 2 independent schizophrenia cohorts and also associated with white matter hyperintensities in a general population sample. Since the catatonic syndrome is likely a surrogate marker for other executive function defects, we suggest that microglia-directed therapies may be considered in psychiatric disorders associated with myelin abnormalities.
Hana Janova, Sahab Arinrad, Evan Balmuth, Marina Mitjans, Johannes Hertel, Mohamad Habes, Robert A. Bittner, Hong Pan, Sandra Goebbels, Martin Begemann, Ulrike C. Gerwig, Sönke Langner, Hauke B. Werner, Sarah Kittel-Schneider, Georg Homuth, Christos Davatzikos, Henry Völzke, Brian L. West, Andreas Reif, Hans Jörgen Grabe, Susann Boretius, Hannelore Ehrenreich, Klaus-Armin Nave
Total views: 1447
Obesity is a principal causative factor in the development of metabolic syndrome. Here we report that increased oxidative stress in accumulated fat is an important pathogenic mechanism of obesity-associated metabolic syndrome. Fat accumulation correlated with systemic oxidative stress in humans and mice. Production of ROS increased selectively in adipose tissue of obese mice, accompanied by augmented expression of NADPH oxidase and decreased expression of antioxidative enzymes. In cultured adipocytes, elevated levels of fatty acids increased oxidative stress via NADPH oxidase activation, and oxidative stress caused dysregulated production of adipocytokines (fat-derived hormones), including adiponectin, plasminogen activator inhibitor–1, IL-6, and monocyte chemotactic protein–1. Finally, in obese mice, treatment with NADPH oxidase inhibitor reduced ROS production in adipose tissue, attenuated the dysregulation of adipocytokines, and improved diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and hepatic steatosis. Collectively, our results suggest that increased oxidative stress in accumulated fat is an early instigator of metabolic syndrome and that the redox state in adipose tissue is a potentially useful therapeutic target for obesity-associated metabolic syndrome.
Shigetada Furukawa, Takuya Fujita, Michio Shimabukuro, Masanori Iwaki, Yukio Yamada, Yoshimitsu Nakajima, Osamu Nakayama, Makoto Makishima, Morihiro Matsuda, Iichiro Shimomura
Total views: 1404
The extracellular matrix (ECM) is dynamically tuned to optimize physiological function. Its major properties, including composition and mechanics, profoundly influence cell biology. Cell-ECM interactions operate through an integrated set of sensor and effector circuits that use several classes of receptors and signal transduction pathways. At the single-cell level, the ECM governs differentiation, metabolism, motility, orientation, proliferation, and survival. At the cell population level, the ECM provides higher-order guidance that is essential for physiological function. When pathological changes in the ECM lead to impairment of organ function, we use the term “fibrosis.” In this Review, we differentiate fibrosis initiation from progression and focus primarily on progressive lung fibrosis impairing organ function. We present a working model to explain how the altered ECM is not only a consequence but also a driver of fibrosis. Additionally, we advance the concept that fibrosis progression occurs in a fibrogenic niche that is composed of a fibrogenic ECM that nurtures fibrogenic mesenchymal progenitor cells and their fibrogenic progeny.
Jeremy Herrera, Craig A. Henke, Peter B. Bitterman
Total views: 1649
Fibroblasts synthesize the extracellular matrix of connective tissue and play an essential role in maintaining the structural integrity of most tissues. Researchers have long suspected that fibroblasts exhibit functional specialization according to their organ of origin, body site, and spatial location. In recent years, a number of approaches have revealed the existence of fibroblast subtypes in mice. Here, we discuss fibroblast heterogeneity with a focus on the mammalian dermis, which has proven an accessible and tractable system for the dissection of these relationships. We begin by considering differences in fibroblast identity according to anatomical site of origin. Subsequently, we discuss new results relating to the existence of multiple fibroblast subtypes within the mouse dermis. We consider the developmental origin of fibroblasts and how this influences heterogeneity and lineage restriction. We discuss the mechanisms by which fibroblast heterogeneity arises, including intrinsic specification by transcriptional regulatory networks and epigenetic factors in combination with extrinsic effects of the spatial context within tissue. Finally, we discuss how fibroblast heterogeneity may provide insights into pathological states including wound healing, fibrotic diseases, and aging. Our evolving understanding suggests that ex vivo expansion or in vivo inhibition of specific fibroblast subtypes may have important therapeutic applications.
Magnus D. Lynch, Fiona M. Watt
Total views: 1591
Intratumoral fibrosis results from the deposition of a cross-linked collagen matrix by cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs). This type of fibrosis has been shown to exert mechanical forces and create a biochemical milieu that, together, shape intratumoral immunity and influence tumor cell metastatic behavior. In this Review, we present recent evidence that CAFs and tumor cells are regulated by provisional matrix molecules, that metastasis results from a change in the type of stromal collagen cross-link, and that fibrosis and inflammation perpetuate each other through proteolytic and chemotactic mediators released into the tumor stroma. We also discuss aspects of the emerging biology that have potential therapeutic value.
Mitsuo Yamauchi, Thomas H. Barker, Don L. Gibbons, Jonathan M. Kurie
Total views: 1573
Fibrosis is the excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix that often occurs as a wound healing response to repeated or chronic tissue injury, and may lead to the disruption of organ architecture and loss of function. Although fibrosis was previously thought to be irreversible, recent evidence indicates that certain circumstances permit the resolution of fibrosis when the underlying causes of injury are eradicated. The mechanism of fibrosis resolution encompasses degradation of the fibrotic extracellular matrix as well as elimination of fibrogenic myofibroblasts through their adaptation of various cell fates, including apoptosis, senescence, dedifferentiation, and reprogramming. In this Review, we discuss the present knowledge and gaps in our understanding of how matrix degradation is regulated and how myofibroblast cell fates can be manipulated, areas that may identify potential therapeutic approaches for fibrosis.
Joon-Il Jun, Lester F. Lau
Total views: 1399
Epithelial cell loss alters a tissue’s optimal function and awakens evolutionarily adapted healing mechanisms to reestablish homeostasis. Although adult mammalian organs have a limited regeneration potential, the liver stands out as one remarkable exception. Following injury, the liver mounts a dynamic multicellular response wherein stromal cells are activated in situ and/or recruited from the bloodstream, the extracellular matrix (ECM) is remodeled, and epithelial cells expand to replenish their lost numbers. Chronic damage makes this response persistent instead of transient, tipping the system into an abnormal steady state known as fibrosis, in which ECM accumulates excessively and tissue function degenerates. Here we explore the cellular and molecular switches that balance hepatic regeneration and fibrosis, with a focus on uncovering avenues of disease modeling and therapeutic intervention.
Lucía Cordero-Espinoza, Meritxell Huch
Total views: 1395
The ability to repair tissues is essential for the survival of organisms. In chronic settings, the failure of the repair process to terminate results in overproduction of collagen, a pathology known as fibrosis, which compromises organ recovery and impairs function. The origin of the collagen-overproducing cell has been debated for years. Here we review recent insights gained from the use of lineage tracing approaches in several organs. The resulting evidence points toward specific subsets of tissue-resident mesenchymal cells, mainly localized in a perivascular position, as the major source for collagen-producing cells after injury. We discuss these findings in view of the functional heterogeneity of mesenchymal cells of the perivascular niche, which have essential vascular, immune, and regenerative functions that need to be preserved for efficient repair.
Selene E. Di Carlo, Lucie Peduto
Total views: 1248
Tissue injury disrupts the mechanical homeostasis that underlies normal tissue architecture and function. The failure to resolve injury and restore homeostasis gives rise to progressive fibrosis that is accompanied by persistent alterations in the mechanical environment as a consequence of pathological matrix deposition and stiffening. This Review focuses on our rapidly growing understanding of the molecular mechanisms linking the altered mechanical environment in injury, repair, and fibrosis to cellular activation. In particular, our focus is on the mechanisms by which cells transduce mechanical signals, leading to transcriptional and epigenetic responses that underlie both transient and persistent alterations in cell state that contribute to fibrosis. Translation of these mechanobiological insights may enable new approaches to promote tissue repair and arrest or reverse fibrotic tissue remodeling.
Daniel J. Tschumperlin, Giovanni Ligresti, Moira B. Hilscher, Vijay H. Shah
Total views: 1212
Eukaryotic cells contain an elegant protein quality control system that is crucial in maintaining cellular homeostasis; however, dysfunction of this system results in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR). Severe or prolonged ER stress is associated with the development of degenerative and fibrotic disorders in multiple organs, as evidenced by the identification of disease-causing mutations in epithelial-restricted genes that lead to protein misfolding or mistrafficking in familial fibrotic diseases. Emerging evidence implicates ER stress and UPR signaling in a variety of profibrotic mechanisms in individual cell types. In epithelial cells, ER stress can induce apoptosis, inflammatory signaling, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. In other cell types, ER stress is linked to myofibroblast activation, macrophage polarization, and T cell differentiation. ER stress–targeted therapies have begun to emerge using approaches that range from global enhancement of chaperone function to selective targeting of activated ER stress sensors and other downstream mediators. As the complex regulatory mechanisms of this system are further clarified, there are opportunities to develop new disease-modifying therapeutic strategies in a wide range of chronic fibrotic diseases.
Jonathan A. Kropski, Timothy S. Blackwell
Total views: 1180
The clinical spectrum of congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) encompasses a common birth defect in humans that has significant impact on long-term patient survival. Overall, data indicate that approximately 20% of patients may have a genetic disorder that is usually not detected based on standard clinical evaluation, implicating many different mutational mechanisms and pathogenic pathways. In particular, 10% to 15% of CAKUT patients harbor an unsuspected genomic disorder that increases risk of neurocognitive impairment and whose early recognition can impact clinical care. The emergence of high-throughput genomic technologies is expected to provide insight into the common and rare genetic determinants of diseases and offer opportunities for early diagnosis with genetic testing.
Simone Sanna-Cherchi, Rik Westland, Gian Marco Ghiggeri, Ali G. Gharavi
Total views: 1168
Genetic investigations of fibrotic diseases, including those of late onset, often yield unanticipated insights into disease pathogenesis. This Review focuses on pathways underlying lung fibrosis that are generalizable to other organs. Herein, we discuss genetic variants subdivided into those that shorten telomeres, activate the DNA damage response, change resident protein expression or function, or affect organelle activity. Genetic studies provide a window into the downstream cascade of maladaptive responses and pathways that lead to tissue fibrosis. In addition, these studies reveal interactions between genetic variants, environmental factors, and age that influence the phenotypic spectrum of disease. The discovery of forces counterbalancing inherited risk alleles identifies potential therapeutic targets, thus providing hope for future prevention or reversal of fibrosis.
Christine Kim Garcia
Total views: 1110